" Nabokov answered: "I often think there should exist a special typographical sign for a smile – some sort of concave mark, a supine round bracket, which I would now like to trace in reply to your question." Later, in 1996, Loufrani established The Smiley Company with his son, Nicolas Loufrani.
Nicolas developed hundreds of different emoticons, including 3D versions.
In web forums, instant messengers and online games, text emoticons are often automatically replaced with small corresponding images, which came to be called "emoticons" as well.
The use of emoticons can be traced back to the 17th century, drawn by a Slovak notary to indicate his satisfaction with the state of his town's municipal financial records in 1635, but they were commonly used in casual and humorous writing.The terms of the settlement were undisclosed, but Walmart continued to use its smiley design intermittently, and returned to using it in a major marketing role in 2016.Starting circa 1972, on the PLATO system, emoticons and other decorative graphics were produced as ASCII art, particularly with overprinting: typing a character, backing up, then typing another character.Four vertical typographical emoticons were published in 1881 by the U. satirical magazine Puck, with the stated intention that the publication's letterpress department thus intended to "lay out ...all the cartoonists that ever walked." In 1912, Ambrose Bierce proposed "an improvement in punctuation – the snigger point, or note of cachinnation: it is written thus ‿ and presents a smiling mouth.Dodge's Manual in 1908 documented the reintroduction of "love and kisses" as the number 88.